Vitrectomy is a surgical procedure in which blood is removed from the eye‘s vitreous fluid. The vitreous fluid is a protective gel-like layer of the eye.  A tiny cut is made in the eye to allow the surgeon to insert an instrument by which the blood is drawn out. A salt solution is injected into the eye to replace the removed blood.

Vitrectomy is used to treat severe proliferative retinopathy characterised by bleeding in the vitreous. It is particularly useful for treating proliferative retinopathy complicated by macular oedema. Vitrectomy is 90% effective in either stabilising vision loss or improving vision. This treatment is usually reserved for individuals who fail to respond to aggressive laser surgery.