Protein synthesis is the cellular process of converting genes encoded in our DNA into proteins. These proteins are responsible for most of the functions of a cell. Protein synthesis firstly involves transcription; this requires the DNA to be "read" in order to form another molecule called RNA. The RNA then needs to be translated into a protein. Translation involves the binding of a sequence of amino acids creating a long chain, the chain is then folded into a particular shape. Once the amino acid chain or polypeptide has been folded it is a functional protein.