The endometrial lining is the wall of the uterus into which a fertilised embryo can implant to form a pregnancy. The endometrial lining develops in the follicular phase of the ovulatory cycle, in preparation for receiving an oocyte released during ovulation. If the oocyte is fertilised, the endometrial lining will remain in place and support the developing embryo. If the oocyte is not fertilised, the endometrial lining will break away from the uterus and be expelled via the vagina in a process known as menstruation or menstrual bleeding.

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