Nutrition during pregnancy

Fruit Nutrition requirements change during pregnancy. Pregnant women should eat energy-giving foods, body-building foods and protective foods. They should avoid foods that are more likely to contain harmful pathogens (e.g. processed meats). Alcohol and caffeine may affect foetal development and should also be avoided.

For more information, see Nutrition During Pregnancy.

Pregnancy and tobacco

Pregnancy and Smoking Smoking or being exposed to tobacco smoke, either before or during pregnancy is associated with a range of poor pregnancy outcomes, including reduced fertility, an increased risk of pregnancy complications and impaired infant and child development. Tobacco smoke exposure is considered one of the few, preventable causes of poor pregnancy outcomes in developed countries like Australia.

For more information, see Smoking and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy.

Pregnancy and alcohol consumption

Pregnancy and alcohol consumption When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, it also enters the bloodstream of her foetus, and when excessive amounts of alcohol are consumed they can have damaging effects on the foetus.

For more information, see Pregnancy and Alcohol Consumption.

Dental health during pregnancy

Dental health during pregnancy There is emerging interest in the effect of the prenatal period on tooth development and the future risk of tooth decay for the child. Pregnancy, thus, is a critical time to focus on good dental hygiene.

For more information, see Dental Health and Nutrition During Pregnancy.

Pregnancy drug categories


The pregnancy category of a drug is an assessment of the risk of injury to the foetus if the drug is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. Categories range from A, which are drugs that have been observed to be relatively safe to Category X which have such a high risk of causing permanent damage to the foetus that they should not be used in pregnancy or when there is a possibility of pregnancy.

For more information, see Pregnancy Drug Categories.

Bonding with your baby during pregnancy

Pregnancy bonding Bonding with a baby during pregnancy refers to a process through which a pregnant woman experiences feelings and emotions for her foetus, interacts with her foetus and develops a maternal identity.

For more information, see Bonding With Your Baby During Pregnancy.

Sex during pregnancy

Pregnancy Sex during pregnancy is safe and enjoyable for the vast majority of couples. However, pregnancy is a time of many changes, both physical and emotional. These changes may alter a woman’s desire for sex. In addition, physical discomfort or fears of harming the baby can affect a couple’s sexual relationship.

For more information, see Sex During Pregnancy.

Plane travel during pregnancy

Flying When flying, there are a number of health risks associated with the reduced availability of oxygen in pressurised cabins, and with sitting down for extended periods of time. Pregnant women may be concerned that flying has health risks for their foetus or themselves, and may be reluctant to fly as a result.

For more information, see Staying Healthy During Plane Travel.

Pregnancy and exercise

Pregnancy and exercise It is important to stay active during pregnancy to control weight gain, relieve stress and reduce muscle tension. Other exercises can strengthen abdominal and pelvic floor muscles.

For more information, see Pregnancy and Exercise.

More information

Pregnancy For more information about pregnancy, including preconception advice, stages of pregnancy, investigations, complications, living with pregnancy and birth, see Pregnancy.


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